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Archive for the ‘Nutrition’ Category

Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Sehemu ya pili

Ugonjwa wa moyo (coronary heart disese) una dalili kadhaa lakini mojawapo ni moyo kushindwa kazi (heart attack).  Tatizo hili la moyo kushindwa kazi hutokea ghafla na hasa kwa watu wenye umri mkubwa lakini ukweli ni kwamba ugonjwa huo unakuwa umeanza muda mrefu uliopita, pengine miaka mingi iliyopita.  Ndio maana ni muhimu kuanza kuutunza moyo mapema wakati wa ujana hata utotoni.

Naamini ulisoma sehemu ya kwanza kwa hiyo hapa tunaendelea na sehemu ya pili kwa kuzungumzia shinikizo kubwa la damu (high blood pressure) na ugonjwa wa kisukari kwani magonjwa haya pia huongeza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo.

Shinikizo kubwa la damu (high blood Pressure) huharibu ngozi ya ndani ya mishipa ya damu na hivyo kufanya lehemu (Cholesterol) kujikusanya kwenye mishipa ya damu kwa urahisi zaidi.  Punguza uwezekano wa kuwa na shinikizo kubwa la damu kwa kufanya mazoezi ya mwili angalau dakika 30 kila siku, kuwa na uzito wa mwili usiozidi kiasi na kupunguza matumizi ya chumvi na vyakula vyenye chumvi nyingi.  Kama tayari una shinikizo kubwa la damu, endelea kutumia dawa kama ulivyoelekezwa na daktari wako na kufuata ushauri wa chakula na lishe. Kumbuka ni muhimu sana kutumia dawa kama ulivyoelekezwa na daktari.

Kuwa na ugonjwa wa kisukari pia huongeza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo. Kwa bahati mbaya, watu wengi wenye ugonjwa wa kisukari hata hawajui kwamba wana ugonjwa huo.  Ugonjwa wa kisukari huweza kuharibu mishipa ya damu, na hii inaongeza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo. Pia ugonjwa wa kisukari huongezea uwezekano wa kuwa lehemu nyingi mwilini, kupata shinikizo kubwa la damu na pia kuwa na unene kupita kiasi.  Kipimo cha damu kuona kiasi cha sukari katika damu hugundua kama una ugonjwa wa kisukari au una uwezekano wa kupata kisukari.  Hivyo ni muhimu kumwona mtalamu wa afya kupata huduma hiyo ya kupima damu.  Kama tayari una ugonjwa wa kisukari basi ni muhimu kuendelea kufuatilia huduma za afya ili uelekezwe ulaji bora unasaidia kuuweka mwili katika kiasi cha wastani cha sukari au kupatiwa dawa pale inapohitajika.  Punguza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa kisukari kwa kuhakikisha huna uzito uliozidi kiasi, kufanya mazoezi ya mwili kila siku angalau dakika 30 au zaidi, kupunguza matumizi ya mafuta au vyakula vyenye mafuta mengi, pia vile vyenye sukari nyingi kwani huchangia kuongeza uzito.

Mpaka sasa naamini umegundua kwamba kutokufanya mazoezi ya mwili kunaongeza uwezekano wa kupata magonjwa sugu mengi, na pia ikiwepo ugonjwa wa moyo. Kufanya Mazoezi ya mwili itakupunguzia uwezekano wa kupata magonjwa haya sugu. Chagua zoezi ambalo unamudu. Kwa mfano kutembea kwa haraka kwa angalau dakika 30 kwa siku na ukishazoea ongeza kufikia angalau saa moja (dakika 60).  Kama unafanya kazi au kuishi gorofani tumia ngazi badala ya lifti; fanya kazi za nyuimbani kama kusafisha, kufua, kupasi bustani nk. kama sehemu ya mazoezi.  Punguza muda unaoketi kuangalia TV, na epuka vyakula vinavyo ongeza uzito kwa haraka kama vile vyenye mafuta mengi au sukari nyingi.  Pia kula chakula kwa kiasi, huku ukihakikisha unatumia mbogamboga kwa wingi, matunda na nafaka zisizong’arishwa kama dona.

Yapo mengi unayoweza kufanya kupunguza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo, lakini sio lazima uanze yote kwa mara moja.  Anza kidogo kidogo mwisho utakuta umeweza yote.  Kila unapopiga hatua moja ni mchango mkubwa kwa maisha yako.  Jiwekee malengo na taratibu za kukusaidia kutimiza malengo yako.  Kwa mfano weka rekodi ya dakika ulizofanya mazoezi kwa siku na ichunguze rekodi hiyo kila mwisho wa wiki ili uweze kuongeza bidii. Kama una mtindo wa kula asusa (snacks) zenye mafuta mengi au sukari nyingi, jiwekee karibu nawe asusa zisizo na mafuta kama karoti, tunda, tango, mahindi ya kuchoma au kukaanga (popcorn), maji na kadhalika.

Ukweli ni kwamba unaweza!!! Lenga mabadiliko katika namna unavyokula, ongeza mazoezi ya mwili na epuka utumiaji wa sigara au tumbaku.

Jipende….   Ufunguo wa mtindo bora wa maisha upo mkoni mwako.

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Sehemu ya Kwanza

Ugonjwa wa moyo (coronary heart disese) una dalili kadhaa lakini mojawapo ni moyo kushindwa kazi (heart attack).  Tatizo hili la moyo kushindwa kazi hutokea ghafla na hasa kwa watu wenye umri mkubwa lakini ukweli ni kwamba ugonjwa huo unakuwa umeanza muda mrefu uliopita, pengine miaka mingi iliyopita.  Ndio maana ni muhimu kuanza kuutunza moyo mapema wakati wa ujana na zaidi tangu utotoni.

Tatizo hili huanza kwa mkusanyiko wa mafuta katika mishipa ya damu, na huweza kuendelea mpaka kuanza kuziba mishipa hiyo.  Hii hufuatiwa na moyo kukosa hewa safi (oxygen) kwa kiasi kinachotakiwa kwa sababu mishipa ya kupitisha damu imeziba na damu  ndiyo inayopeleka hewa ya oksijeni kwenye moyo.

Mambo yanayoongeza uwezekano wa kupata tatizo hili ni pamoja na kuwa na lehemu (cholesterol) kwa wingi mwilini, uvutaji wa sigara au utumiaji tumbaku, shinikizo kubwa la damu (high Blood pressure), ugonjwa wa kisukari na kutokufanya mazoezi ya mwili.

Lehemu inahitajika mwilini lakini kwa kiasi kidogo.  Hata hivyo huwezi kujua una lehemu kupita kiasi mwilini mpaka upime (inatakiwa iwe chini ya 200mg/dl).  kiasi kikubwa cha lehemu mwili husababisha mkusanyiko wa mafuta katika mishipa ya damu. Punguza hatari hii kwa kupunguza utumiaji wa mafuta yanayotokana na wanyama ikiwa ni pamoja na nyama iliyonona (nyama ya mafuta), maziwa yenye mafuta mengi (whole milk), jibini, (cheese), ngozi ya kuku na siagi. Pia ni vizurri kupunguza ulaji wa mayai,  nyama (isizidi nusu kilo kwa wiki), mafuta yatumike kwa kiasi kidogo.  Ongeza matumizi ya nafaka hasa zile zisizong’arishwa (whole grains) kama unga wa dona, (soma zaidi kuhusu nafaka zisizokobolewa), ongeza pia matumizi ya aina za kunde/maharage,  mboga mboga na matunda. Fanya mazoezi ya mwili angalau dakika 30 kila siku. (Soma zaidi kuhusu mazoezi)

uvutaji wa sigara au tumiaji wa tumbaku huongeza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo kwa namna nyingi. Sumu iliyopo katika sigara (nicotine), huharibu ngozi ya ndani ya mishipa ya damu, pia huongeza uwezekano wa lehemu kujikusanya kwanye sehemu za mishipa ya damu zilizoumizwa (zilizoharibiwa). Nicotine huweza pia kusababisha mishipa ya damu kuziba au kuwa nyembamba kuliko kawaida na hivyo kuzuia damu kupita inavyotakiwa. Hapa tatizo hili linaweza kuondoka kwa kuacha kuvuta sigara au kutumia tumbaku.

Fuata mtindo bora wa maisha kupunguza uwezekano wa kupata ugonjwa wa moyo.  Sehemu ya pili itafuata…..

Jipende, Ufunguo wa mtindo bora wa maisha upo mkononi mwako….

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Most of us hardly even think of our heart until something bad happens either to ourselves or to our loved ones! It is good to be aware that most risk factors of coronary heart disease are preventable and therefore, under your control.  Often after a loss of a loved one to a heart attack, our concern is only short-lived, before life continues to business as usual.  As you embark on this New Year, take a minute to assess your risk of heart disease so that you can take care of your heart.

Assess your risk using the following table (answer either yes or no to each risk factor)

# No Yes Risk Factor
High Blood Cholesterol
1.* I often eat foods high in cholesterol or high in fat, such as butter, full cream milk, deep fried foods, sweets, chocolates, etc.
2.* My blood cholesterol (if tested) is over 240
3.* I eat a lot of processed foods (such as sausages, bacon etc), and fast food
High Blood Pressure
4.* My blood pressure is higher than 120/80
5.* I am overweight
6.* I exercise less than 30 minutes on most days
7.* I eat a lot of salty foods
Smoking
8.* I am a cigarette, pipe or cigar smoker; or I use tobacco in other forms
9.* I have little motivation to quit smoking
Other risks
10. I have diabetes or a family history of diabetes
11.* I do not regularly make an effort to reduce/relieve stress
12.* I am not physically active
13.* I am a woman on birth control pills who smokes
14. I have a close male relative who had a heart attack before the age of 55 years or a female before the age of 65 years.

The more times you answered “Yes”, the greater your chance for developing coronary heart disease. But now that you know the risk factors, I believe you are ready to address them and reduce the risk. Note that the 12  risk factors out of the 14 (marked with a *) are completely under your control, and you can do something to reduce eliminate them.  As one of my friends put it, “Take care of your heart so that it can take care of you”. Try to make this one of your New Year resolutions.

Jipende, Ufunguo wa mtindo bora wa maisha uko mkononi mwako.

“The key to a healthy lifestyle is in your hands”.

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Baada ya tafiti nyingi kufanyika na kuangalia kwa umakini mambo ambayo yamethibitishwa kuwa na uhusiano mkubwa na saratani kwa upande wa chakula, lishe na mazoezi ya mwili, ushauri umetolewa na wataalamu wanaofuatilia maswala hayo kwa makini. Ushauri umelenga maeneo kumi muhimu (World Cancer Research Fund-report 2007):

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Ni mchanganyiko wa: maji, sukari, rangi na ladha bandia ya matunda. Je wote tunajua hilo?  Maana ni muhimu mtua anapoamua kuvitumia vinywaji hivi afanye uamuzi huo kuzingatia taarifa sahihi alizo nazo (yaani iwe ni “informed choice”).Vinywaji hivi hata nisingependa kuviita “juisi”, maana ukweli vinywaji hivyo sio juisi.

Hivi ni vile vinywaji vya mchanganyiko wa maji, sukari, rangi na ladha bandia ya matunda (artificial fruit flavour).  Vinywaji hivi kwa kiasi kikubwa huchangia kuupa mwili nishati-lishe (calories) nyingi na isiyo na virutubishi vingine, na hivyo kuchangia ongezeko la uzito.

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Hata tukiambiwa “kula chakula kupita kiasi kulisababisha kifo cha fulani”, hatuamini, au tukiamini, bado tunaendelea “kukupenda” na kula kupita kiasi! Sasa tutakutafutia mikakati!

Chakula ni kitu chochote kinacholiwa na kuupa mwili virutubishi. Nadhani kila mtu anapenda chakula, na kweli chakula ni kitu kizuri, tena huburudisha. Nakumbuka miaka kadhaa iliyopita nilikuwa naongea na kijana mdogo, mwenye umri kama miaka 18, tukazungumzia chakula.

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

This may be a difficult question to answer for most of us; because we may not know how much is enough! Before we refer to a specific amount, it may be necessary just to say that “we all need to eat variety and plenty of vegetables and fruits every day”.

Vegetables and fruits have plenty of essential nutrients for health. There is a lot of evidence that eating plenty of vegetables and fruits contribute a lot into prevention of many diseases including many types of cancer. Vegetables and fruits have natural compounds like beta carotene and vitamin c that helps to reduce the risk of many types to cancer. They also have other important nutrients like folate, dietary fibre, vitamin E and other minerals which are all very important in reducing many types of cancer.

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Posted by Mary G. Materu Msc

Bread

When we ask for a brown bread at a shop what are we asking for? Is it just the colour of the bread? If it is just the colour, then we could have added any edible colour to make a white bread brown! No doubt when we ask for a brown bread we are asking for a ‘whole wheat bread’ not just brown coloured bread. Unfortunately, in Tanzania most bakers do not label or do not adequately label the bread.

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